There is a need for a public debate on why defense matters. How can we convince European citizens of the importance of investing in defense? What can be expected from the December European Council on defense? Is there only one way to stimulate the debate on defense and NATO in member states, or is each country an individual case that can only be addressed in a specific, tailor-made way? Are national ambitions the key to convincing policymakers and populations that defense matters, or is the narrative of a more supranational European defense the only way forward?