The arrival in Europe of more than 1 million asylum seekers in 2015 unsettled the EU like no crisis before it. Debilitated by slow economic recovery, weak political leadership, and the rise of populist anti-EU parties, the union is failing to get a grip on this unprecedented challenge. With the inflow of refugees likely to continue for years, migration may be the ultimate make-or-break issue for the EU.

In his latest article, entitled “How the Refugee Crisis Will Reshape the EU,” Carnegie’s Stefan Lehne argues that the migration challenge could result in one of three scenarios. But only through cooperative, collective action will the union manage to successfully respond to the crisis—and bridge divisions that have opened up among member states in recent months.

Lehne discussed these issues with Valentina Pop, EU correspondent for the Wall Street Journal, and Carola van Rijnsoever, permanent representative of the Netherlands to the EU Political and Security Committee. Judy Dempsey, nonresident senior associate at Carnegie Europe and editor in chief of the Strategic Europe blog, moderated.

Carnegie Europe is grateful to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands for its financial support of this event.

Stefan Lehne

Stefan Lehne is a visiting scholar at Carnegie Europe.

Valentina Pop

Valentina Pop is the EU correspondent for the Wall Street Journal in Brussels.

Carola van Rijnsoever

Carola van Rijnsoever is the permanent representative of the Netherlands to the EU Political and Security Committee.

Judy Dempsey

Judy Dempsey is a nonresident senior associate at Carnegie Europe and editor in chief of the Strategic Europe blog.