France and Germany have completely different views about how to get European defense off the ground.
Germany’s grand coalition must now seize the chance to reshape Europe with France.
Ankara’s latest military offensive in Syria and its domestic agenda are leading to a cul-de-sac with the EU.
Europe needs more military cooperation between London and Paris. Yet the prospects for significant joint action in the future appear slim.
Progress on European defense needs to go hand in hand with upgrading soft power. In this regard, the EU has not been up to the mark.
While the EU is celebrating PESCO, Paris is preparing for closer defense cooperation outside the union.
Germany will have no new government until at least next February, as Europe’s biggest economy begins to lose influence and predictability under its chancellor.
Emmanuel Macron could soon become the de facto leader of the EU. But first, he needs to make the French economy great again.
It won’t be plain sailing for Emmanuel Macron and Angela Merkel to agree on further fiscal and monetary integration, not least because of their own differences.
A selection of experts answer a new question from Judy Dempsey on the foreign and security policy challenges shaping Europe’s role in the world.