For all the attention paid to the growing threats to nuclear forces, it may be their command-and-control systems that are more vulnerable. How serious are the threats posed by advanced nonnuclear capabilities, such as cyber, anti-satellite, and high-precision conventional weapons. How are these threats likely to evolve in the coming decades? Could unilateral strategies to reduce vulnerabilities, such as technical enhancements or attempts to deter nonnuclear attacks on command-and-control assets by threatening a nuclear response, be misinterpreted by potential adversaries as aggressive rather than defensive? Are there any plausible ways to manage these risks cooperatively?


Erin Simpson, Northrop Grumman


Lyu Jinghua, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Sergey Rogov, Russian Academy of Science

Heather Williams, King's College London