While Ankara’s activist policy in Southeast Europe has prompted many to see the country as a revisionist power, this is not the case. Turkey is not an external player but very much part of the Balkans, and its foreign policy is a parallel strategy to those of the EU and NATO, rather than a challenge.
With accession talks at an impasse, Turkey and the EU need another way to revitalize their relationship.
In 2021, the EU and members states put in place new policies and processes aimed at supporting democracy. This Annual Review summarizes how and where Europe is directing these funds, and what are the impacts.
Carnegie scholars assess U.S.-European cooperation on China, technology, climate, and more.
In the last two decades, the Balkans appear to have become a new arena for religious competition between Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and Iran. The strategies used by these very different actors show their efforts in exporting faith in the name of power and in projecting their identity and domestic structures.
This week's high-level diplomatic meetings involving Russia, the United States, and NATO mark a departure from recent years of minimal contact. Putin has forced this crisis diplomacy upon the West, and for him, this already constitutes success: it shows the world that Russia is a globally significant power to be reckoned with.
Since October 2020, the European Union has gradually extended its sanctions against Belarus. Aimed to change the calculations and dynamics within the ruling elite, sanctions are now perceived as less important by the Belarusian people given the authoritarian regime's consolidation of power.
With increased summitry and frequent communication between Moscow and Washington, present-day Russia-U.S. relations harks back to the Cold War. To defuse tensions, the Americans must draw the Russians to the table and negotiate from a position of strength.
While a successful Iran nuclear deal is far from guaranteed, alternatives to diplomacy are bleak. The United States’ apparent unwillingness to signal its intention to honor the agreement, Iran’s nuclear progress, and rising tensions between Washington and Beijing stand in the way of a renewed compromise.
European governments need full-spectrum geopolitical engagement and commitment to the eastern region, not merely the kind of Eastern Partnership incrementalism seen at the summit.
The EU’s pursuit of a single European defense market necessitates stronger democratic oversight. Members of the European Parliament and national legislative bodies should play a more proactive role as watchdog and engage in strategic foresight and planning.
The EU has a major role to play in accelerating climate action both at home and abroad. If it fails, the bloc will succumb to supply chain breakdowns and migratory pressures. To avoid this, the EU must advance climate justice and restore trust between developed and developing countries.
Tunisia’s democratic crisis is also a reflection of the EU’s weak and fragmented commitment to the country. The EU should encourage a return to democracy by alleviating Tunisia’s economic struggles, spurring political reforms, and pressuring regional partners to stop meddling in Tunisian affairs.
European debates on climate change have focused so much on technocratic fixes that they’ve neglected to see how contentious political debates on cost sharing will be.
Former German chancellor Angela Merkel played a crucial role in keeping the EU-Turkey relationship on track. New leadership in Berlin—a three-party coalition of Social Democrats, Greens and Liberals—raises questions about the future substance and tone of relations between Germany, the EU, and Turkey.
Disinformation and influence campaigns from domestic and international actors have thrived during the pandemic. European policies that build public trust in democratic institutions should be accompanied by regulation of online platforms that focuses on transparency and accountability.
Turkey’s current state is defined by a deteriorating rule-of-law architecture and an assertive foreign policy. The country’s future lies in the hands of its citizens, who will head to the polls in 2023 for presidential and legislative elections.
Georgia’s cultural clashes have exacerbated the country's political polarization. These divisions challenge the country’s democratic processes and relations with Western partners.
The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent economic crisis have deepened existing gender inequities. The EU should strengthen its efforts to address the barriers to gender equality by promoting and supporting women’s political empowerment.
In Europe, security and defense cooperation have long been the realm of member states and other security organizations like NATO. But recent efforts at the EU level have begun to create a European defense sector—which presents unique challenges and opportunities.