In 2021, the EU and members states put in place new policies and processes aimed at supporting democracy. This Annual Review summarizes how and where Europe is directing these funds, and what are the impacts.
Carnegie scholars assess U.S.-European cooperation on China, technology, climate, and more.
Tunisia’s democratic crisis is also a reflection of the EU’s weak and fragmented commitment to the country. The EU should encourage a return to democracy by alleviating Tunisia’s economic struggles, spurring political reforms, and pressuring regional partners to stop meddling in Tunisian affairs.
The geopolitical pressures of Brexit, an unstable transatlantic partnership, dwindling member states’ defense budgets, and global competition in high technology areas have prompted European institutions to consolidate the union’s cooperation on defense industry and technology.
China’s presence has brought socioeconomic opportunities to Georgia, Greece, Hungary, and Romania. Yet it has exacerbated governance shortfalls, undermined elements of political and economic stability, and complicated the European Union’s ability to reach consensus on key issues.
In a bid to gain political ground at home, Ankara has launched multiple military operations in Syria. These have laid the groundwork for a more aggressive, nationalist foreign policy with profound implications for relations with the United States, Russia, and the EU.
Russia’s steady development of military capabilities on the ground, in the air, and at sea has enhanced its overall military posture in the region. This experience, and lack of resistance from NATO, is likely to enhance Russia’s military posture and ambitions outside the Mediterranean.
The EU’s hollow statements expressing “concern” over the latest Israeli-Palestinian conflagration will not deter either party. Unless the Europeans use what little leverage they have, they can forget about having a strategic role in the region.
The renewed fighting between Israel and Hamas should be a catalyst for ending the unsustainable status quo in the region. Negotiating a ceasefire and rebuilding trust will require an immense diplomatic effort by the United States and regional actors.