Twenty-five years ago, the Russian government went to war in Chechnya. Few will be marking this anniversary and the two following wars, which ultimately came to define Putin’s transformation of Russia.
Azerbaijan has long been an island of unchanging continuity, but a generational overhaul is underway. With mounting expectations and a resurgent opposition, 2020 will be a testing year for Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev.
The political dynamics of the wider European space have changed dramatically in recent years. The directions of democratic influence now run multiple ways, and the core assumptions underpinning EU democracy support policies need to be rethought.
Russia continuously uses energy politics as a foreign policy instrument, thwarting EU diversification efforts, setting foot in the MENA region, and establishing itself as a major supplier of energy to China.
Government and parliament are accepting President Zelenskiy’s proposals and orders too readily, thereby turning the Ukrainian political system into much more of a presidential system than it has ever been.
Lehne is a visiting scholar at Carnegie Europe in Brussels, where his research focuses on the post–Lisbon Treaty development of the European Union’s foreign policy, with a specific focus on relations between the EU and member states.